Defining your reproductive goals early on before starting is essential in guiding the choice of treatment. IVF is the most versatile and robust fertility treatment available. In addition, it accomplish many reproductive goals that are no achievable with IUI.
What Can you Accomplish through IVF ?
Getting pregnant now
IVF can be performed in almost all causes of infertility:
Ovarian factor, male factor, tubal factor, emndometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and uterine factor. Success does not appear to be affected by the cause of infertility with the exception of diminished ovarian reserve. Hence, it is important that you seek evaluation as early as you can.
The ovary is stimulated using fertility medication. Various protocols of treatment are tweaked to your special situation and to maximize egg production. Sometimes mild or minimal stimulation IVF is a more suitable approach. Eggs are retrieved and fertilized in the lab using husband or donor sperm.
Embryos are graded based on morphology (shape) and an appropriate number is transferred into the uterine cavity. In the majority of men, sperm is obtained from the ejaculated sperm. In some surgical sperm retrieval (TESE) is required.
Getting pregnant with a single baby
Conceiving with a single baby should be the aim of every woman. The risk of twins and high order multiple pregnancy is high risk of preterm delivery. Premature delivery can lead to long term health problems in the babies. Unlike IUI where the number of embryos reaching the uterine cavity cannot be controlled, IVF allows for a strict control on the number of embryos reaching the uterus. Women with reasonable quality embryos up to age 38 or so can consider the transfer of a single embryo and freezing the other embryos.
In that regards IVF is the more conservative approach when compared to IUI, besides being several folds more successful in achieving a pregnancy.
Getting pregnant in the future with a current partner
Embryos created now after IVF, can be frozen for several years. When desired, frozen embryos are thawed and transferred into the uterus in a natural or hormone treated uterus. This allow you to extend your fertility for years to come. The survival of frozen embryos is excellent, especially using moder freezing methods (vitrification).
The pregnancy rate after transfer of frozen embryos is comparable to fresh embryos. There is also some evidence that pregnancies ensuing after transfer of thawed embryos are at lower risk for obstetrical problems.
Getting pregnant in the future with a future partner
If you do not have a male partner and do not want to use donor sperm, you can consider freezing your eggs. Because your ovarian reserve; the number and quality of eggs; will diminish as the time goes by, freezing eggs at an earlier age, enables you to freeze healthier eggs and use them years later when you are ready. Egg freezing is a fertility solution for fertile women.
Selecting the Sex of the Baby (Family Balancing)
Eggs are retrieved, fertilized. The resulting embryos are tested; one cell is obtained from each embryo and tested for the X and Y chromosomes to identify the genetic sex. The desired embryos are transferred into the uterus . Women consider sex selection for family balancing (had a baby of one sex and desire another baby of the other sex). Women consider sex selection when they want to reach their reproductive goals e.g one boy and one girl, while limiting the number of children conceived.
Getting Pregnant with Donor Eggs
For women with markedly diminished egg reserve or some genetic abnormalities, using an egg donor is an option. Egg donor may be known or anonymous. The donor is stimulated and fertilized with partner or donor sperm then the embryos are transferred to the uterus of the mother or a gestational carrier.
Becoming a Biological Parent without Getting Pregnant
Some women are not able to get pregnant in their own uteri because of a condition affecting the uterus: scarring, multiple fibroids, adenomyosis, recurrent preterm delivery..Others prefer not to get pregnant because of a general health problem: successful treatment of breast cancer, severe hypertension or heart disease. Embryos are created through IVF and transferred to the uterus of a gestational carrier (surrogate mother).
Genetically Test the embryos before getting pregnant
Embryos created after IVF can be tested genetically for i. A specific gene or ii all the chromosmes. This is accomplished through two steps. Biopsy of the embryos (one cell in day 3 embryos or few cells from the trophoectoderm of day 5 embryos – blastocysts). The cells are tested for the desired genetic target and the healthy embryos are transferred to the uterus.
Becoming a Biological Father if you are in a Same Sex Relationship
Men in a same sex relationship can father children using an egg donor and a gestational carrier. The donor ovaries are stimulated. Eggs are retrieved and fertilized with one partner sperm or split between partners. Embryos are then transferred into the uterus of a gestational carrier.
Preserve your Fertility in the face of a medical Problem
Sometimes a a medical problem or its treatment reduces the chance for future reproduction. Breast cancer treatment in young women commonly involve treatment with chemotherapy. Medical problems other than cancer also may require treatment with chemotherapy e.g systemic lupus. Chemotherapy leads to loss of ovarian follicles and diminish egg reserve.
The ovaries are stimulated prior to exposure to chemotherapy. Oocytes are retrieved and frozen unfertilized or after fertilization. After treatment, eggs or embryos can be thawed and used for reproduction.
How Successful is IVF ?
Irrespective of the situation, the most important factor in IVF success is the number and quality of eggs remaining in the ovary (Ovarian reserve). Maternal age is the most important determinant of egg reserve. Younger women have more chromosomally normal eggs and are more likely to have a baby after IVF.
In women younger than 35, the transfer of two embryos yields a pregnancy rate of 48 to 50% and one embryo 35 to 40%. In women 40 or older the pregnancy rate per cycle is approximately 5 to 20% depending on age. Many cycles in older women are not completed due to low response to fertility medications.
Modern IVF enables many women and men to achieve there reproductive goals and conform to their social and personal preferences and aspirations.